Nutrition concerning the physiology and anatomy of the body is a big topic as doctors, nutritionists and scientists devote whole life to understand. For practical purposes, but there are some basic principles that, if you understand them even cursorily, can help you eat better and be healthier
The human body consists of four basic types of tissue : Connective, muscular, nervous and epithelial. An organ or body structure can be made of one or more of these tissues but tissues in itself requires nutrients according to its type, not specific organ or location in the body. For example, in order to maintain healthy bones, a connective tissue, must consume enough of the proteins supplying amino acids necessary for the formation of collagen, protein common to all connective tissue.
connective tissue give the fibrous matrix that holds together all other tissues. Skin, bone, the muscles, tendons, ligaments and blood mainly composed of connective tissue, connective tissue but also may be found in the muscles and organs. Muscle is the only body tissue that can contract in response to nerve stimulation. Skeletal muscle allows you to voluntarily move your body to perform tasks, while smooth muscle is responsible for the movement of internal organ lining, such as the digestive tract. The heart has its own type of muscle, called cardiac muscle. Nerve tissue found in the brain, spinal cord and nerves throughout the body. Epithelial tissue consists surface of the skin, mucous membranes, the lining of the digestive tract and also the membranes that surround organs and body cavities.
Proteins are very large, complex molecules consisting of amino acids. Dietary protein supplies all the amino acids the body tissue cells need to build its own proteins for growth, repair and replacement. Protein molecular structures vary between tissues, so a diet containing different protein sources is important to ensure that the correct amino acids are available for all types of tissue. Meat, poultry, fish and soy foods contain complete proteins with all amino acids required tissue growth. Beans, lentils, chickpeas, dairy, and soy foods are also rich in protein, but should be combined with other protein sources such as grains to provide a full range of amino acids.
Plant carbohydrates from grains, fleshy root vegetables and certain fruits such as plantains and breadfruit, supplying energy the body needs for vital functions, daily activity, and to utilize protein for growth and repair. Carbohydrate sources that also contain nondigestible plant fiber, such as that found in whole grains and vegetables have more vitamins and minerals than refined flour products or white rice do. They are also absorbed more slowly into the bloodstream so that they provide more sustained energy.
Vitamins and minerals facilitate the use of energy for basic bodily functions, immune processes and protein synthesis. Vitamin C, folic acid, pyridoxine (B6), pantothenic acid, niacin (B3), riboflavin (B2) and thiamine (B1), cobalamine (B12) are water-soluble vitamins that can not be stored in the body and must be consumed daily. Vitamins A, D, E and K, however, is fat-soluble. They are stored in the body’s cells and not secreted easily. Major essential minerals are sodium, chloride, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium and sulfur. Essential trace elements are iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium and molybdenum.
A balanced diet containing at least five daily servings of fruits and vegetables, six servings of carbohydrates, 46 grams protein for adult women, or 56 grams of protein for men, the best way to ensure you get all the nutrients you need. But even the most conscientious eater is likely to miss some important vitamins now and then, so many doctors recommend that healthy adults take a daily multivitamin. Multivitamins are specifically designed to provide plenty of water-soluble vitamins for good health, and minerals and fat-soluble vitamins at levels that will not be toxic when taken as directed. Sodium is a mineral that rarely need to be supplemented.