Neonatal Anemia

Neonatal Anemia

Anemia is a condition in which the blood does not have enough red blood cells or hemoglobin or is low in volume. neonatal anemia defined as anemia arising in an infant less than 28 days old. in preterm children, anemia is often present at birth in healthy term infants, may anemia not be ready until a week or two after birth several different factors can cause or contribute to the development of neonatal anemia these. Causes are categorized into three types: blood loss, red blood cell destruction and deficient red blood cell production, with the most common cause of anemia in newborns are bleeding.
red blood cell destruction or insufficient production of red blood cells may occur due to an inherited red blood cell disorder. such disorders include hereditary spherocytosis, which increases the rate of red blood cell destruction, and infection-induced myelosuppression, which reduces the rate at which new red blood cells are produced. insufficient production of red blood cells may also be due to iron deficiency, but this type of anemia is relatively rare in the neonatal period. anemia caused by an increased rate of red blood cell destruction can occur from blood type incompatibility between mother and child, from infection or from hereditary blood diseases.
neonatal anemia can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the cause and severity of anemia. symptoms may include pale skin, abnormal heartbeat or pulse, increased requirements for supplemental oxygen, sleep problems, lethargy, low blood pressure and poor feeding. In addition, newborns with anemia are at risk for jaundice, an enlarged spleen and metabolic acidosis, a serious disorder that can be fatal.
neonatal anemia treatment also depends on the cause and severity. a severe case of anemia may require a blood transfusion, and a mild case of transient anemia may not require treatment at all. in the case of premature infants, anemia can be prevented, or the risk is reduced by limiting the drawing of blood for laboratory tests. when the cause of neonatal anemia is an inherited blood disease, the underlying cause of anemia also must be treated.

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